Vo Nguyen Giap

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General Giap:
Vietnam´s Military Legend

Vietnam's, and one of the world's, most successful military generals in history, Vo Nguyen Giap, was born on 25. august 1911.

Wikipedia: Vo Nguyen Giap

Biografi Spartakus Educational

Inger Vinther Johansen - Vietnam Ajour 1-2013: Vo Nguyen Giáp – 100 års vietnamesisk historie - Fra gymnasielærer og journalist til general; en tilbagetrukken tilværelse; fornyer og nytænker

Thousands and thousands people of all walk of life come to pay tribute to General Vo Nguyen Giap at his home. Funeral will be organized on 12 October. Foto Nhat Dinh, Hanoi

Vo Nguyen Giap (1911-2013), fremtrædende vietnamesisk kommunist. Giap var den mest betydningsfulde strateg i de vietnamesiske befrielseskampe.
Som ung student deltog han i studenterstrejken i forbindelse med oprøret i 1930 imod det franske koloniregime. I 1937 fik han sin doktorgrad i Hanoi og var senere historielærer. Han sluttede sig til kommunistpartiet i 1930erne og måtte flygte til Kina i 1939. Hans kone blev arresteret og døde i fængsel og hendes søster blev henrettet af franskmændene.
Under krigen opbyggede han Viet Minhs guerillastyrker, og rykkede i august 1945 ind i Hanoi sammen med Ho Chi Minh. Giap havde hovedæren for sejren over Frankrig ved Dien Bien Phu i 1954, hvor det franske militære hovedkvarter ved Dien Bien Phu blev belejret i 55 dage, hvor 3.000 franske soldater blev dræbt, og de resterende 8.000 franske tropper måtte overgive sig.Giap har opbygget den vietnamesiske hær til at være den bedst organiserede styrke i Sydøstasien. I 1961 publicerede han en håndbog i guerillakrigens taktik og strategi: "Folkets krig, folkets hær". Han spillede også en ledende rolle i befrielseskampen i Sydvietnam.
Fra 1954 var Vo Nguyen Giap øverstkommanderende for de vietnamesiske styrker, fra 1955 forsvarsminister frem til 1980, hvor han gik på pension. Han var dog formelt vice-premierminster frem til 1991.

North Viet Nam: The Red Napoleon
jun 17, 1966

The man who planned the offensive  
The War: The Generals Gamble
feb 09, 1968
South Vietnam: Hanois High-Risk Drive for Victory
maj 15, 1972


A book on legendary General Vo Nguyen Giap written by French philosopher Georges Boudarel has been translated into Vietnamese and released nationwide. The 252-page Vo Nguyen Giap, translated from the original version titled Giap published by the Paris-based Edition Atlas in 1977, is a biography of the general from his childhood to his victories in the French war.
Talkvietnam: French biography honours Gen. Giap
Alain Ruscio retrace le début des entretiens réguliers qu’il a eu, jusqu’en 2010, avec le Général. Il ne s’est autorisé à publier que ce qui avait été relu par Giap et nous restons un peu sur notre faim, car nous n’avons que des souvenirs de guerre (jusqu’en 1975). Sur l’homme, personnage passionnant, mais secret, celui qui jusqu’à un âge avancé a continué à influer sur la vie de son pays, celui qui prend parti sur tout, on l’a vu encore récemment, on ne saura rien. Ce qui frappe, chez Giap (alors même que ce professeur d’histoire n’avait aucun apprentissage des techniques militaires) c’est une détermination inflexible, une volonté implacable, l’impression qu’il n’a jamais douté de la victoire –parce que la cause était juste, parce que le peuple était uni (ce qui n’est pas tout à fait exact), et surtout parce que ce peuple, habitué à se défendre depuis des millénaires –contre les envahisseurs, contre les typhons, contre les inondations… avait une force morale extraordinaire. Anne Hugot Le Goff, AAFV 

Victory at Any Cost: The Genius of Vietnams General Vo Nguyen Giap
Cecil B. Currey  424 pages 1997
Tells the full story of the man who fought three of the worlds great powers - and won. Cecil B. Currey makes clear one primary reason why America lost the Vietnam War: North Vietnams Vo Nguyen Giap.
Review HistoryNet : "There is no other account of North Vietnamese General Vo Nguyen Giaps life and his ability to build "a victorious peasant war machine" as in-depth and honest as this work. Readers come away with a better understanding of not only what has occurred in Vietnam in the past 50 years, but why it happened."

  Peoples War Peoples Army
Vo Nguyen Giap 232 pages - Southeast Asias most successful Communist general, Minister of Defense and Commander in Chief of Vietnams army is convicted that the future holds many "just wars of national liberation." This volume stresses the climate of Asia, Africa, and Latin American, torn today by anticolonial, economic, and political upheavals. It is General Giaps purpose in this book, originally published in 1962, to guide these struggles to the desired "socialist" victory. The speeches and essays that comprise this key document provide not only the tactical doctrine for effective insurgency operations, but also the political guidelines for enlisting the people.

The South Vietnam People Will Win
Vo Nguyen Giap 132 pages
The South Vietnam People Will Win was originally published in 1965.

  Military Art of Peoples War
Vo Nguyen Giap
332 pages Monthly Review Press,U.S. 1971
  Vo Nguyen Giap: Dien Bien Phu
Oversat fra fransk af Søren Clausen og Helga Lassen. - Demos, 1972. - 68 sider : ill. Oversat efter: Dien Bien Phu (i: Guerre du peuple, Armeé du peuple). Udsolgt, kan lånes på biblioteket.
Vo Nguyen Giap: Folkekrig - folkehær
Demos, 1970. oversat af Helga og Otto Lassen.33 sider, illustreret. Oversat efter: People's war people's army. Udsolgt, kan lånes på biblioteket.

Vietnams incomparable military leader

By G. Dunkel, Workers World
Published Sep 4, 2008. General Vo Nguyen Giap, a hero and leader in Vietnams struggle against Japanese, French and U.S. imperialism, celebrated his 97th birthday on Aug. 25. Nong Duc Manh, secretary general of the Vietnamese Communist Party, told Giap that he was "an elder of the Vietnamese Peoples Army who remained a wonderful example for the younger generations."  Besides Manh, other prominent leaders of the Vietnamese party and state also paid Giap a visit on his birthday, along with 30 foreign delegations.

A decisive moment: Giap at the founding of the Vietnam Peoples Army 1944.

Even his adversaries, like retired U.S. Army Lt. Gen. Harold Moore, who led a battle against troops Giap commanded in 1965, called Giap "arguably one of the greatest military commanders of the 20th century:" Using skills developed in his early career in the 1930s as a revolutionary journalist, Giap also described and analyzed the struggles he led. Two of his significant books in English are "Banner of Peoples War, the Partys Military Line" (Praeger, 1970) and "The Military Art of Peoples War" (Monthly Review, 1970).
Giaps parents were fairly well-off farmers from families who opposed the French colonialists then ruling Vietnam. In 1925 he joined a youth group opposed to French occupation. Giap did time in French prisons when he was 19 and joined the Communist Party. After his release, he completed his education and became a teacher, revolutionary journalist and agitator. In the late 1930s he was sent to China to work with Ho Chi Minh in organizing a revolutionary movement among Vietnamese exiles.
During World War II, Japan displaced France as the colonial power in Vietnam. Giap returned home in 1944 to organize against the Japanese occupation. After the August Revolution in 1945 that overthrew Japanese rule, Giap became interior minister in Ho Chi Minhs government.
But France began reoccupying Vietnam in the fall of 1945. The Communist Party decided that Vietnam needed an army. Giap was picked to form and lead it.
In a 2003 interview, Giap said the armys goal "was to lean upon military action as a way to organize the masses, produce a military effect beneficial toward revolution, thus developing and reinforcing the political stand of the Viet Minh." (Journal of Third World Studies) The Viet Minh were the liberation forces who fought the French colonialists and Japanese occupiers.
Giap said that within 48 hours of its founding, "my new army won two successive victories. The first was against the [French] post Phai Khat, the second was at Na Ngan," just 21 miles away. The intelligence agent who provided the information needed to attack Phai Khat was a 13-year-old named Hoang, while the attack on Na Ngan owed its success to "Duc Long, a man of the region."
Giap told his troops, "Be bold, quick and aim for certain victories." He followed this motto from the beginning of the Vietnamese Peoples Army until the offensive that led to Vietnams liberation in 1975.
Giap led 100,000 troops against the French in the decisive battle of Dien Bien Phu in 1954. Another 100,000 Vietnamese workers, mainly women, provided logistics and carried artillery in pieces on bicycles or their backs, along with ammunition and food for the resistance troops. The French colonial power was astonished by its humiliating defeat. Concept of peoples war
The Vietnamese people were able to produce such forces by relying on and developing "peoples war," led by the Communist Party headed by Ho Chi Minh.
Giap explained peoples war in a PBS interview aired in 1999: "It was a war for the people by the people. FOR the people because the wars goals are the peoples goals - goals such as independence, a unified country, and the happiness of its people. ... And BY the people - well, that means ordinary people - not just the army but all people"
He avowed: "We know its the human factor, and not material resources, which decide the outcome of war. Thats why our peoples war, led by Ho Chi Minh, was on such a large scale. It took in the whole population."
The U.S. provided a great deal of the funds and military supplies that France used before its last soldiers left Vietnam in April 1956. Washington supported the regime that the French left in place in south Vietnam and opposed the elections that were supposed to unite the country, elections that Ho Chi Minh, then north Vietnams leader, would surely have won.
As the puppet regime in south Vietnam fell apart, the U.S. stepped up its direct military intervention, first with advisors and then with combat units in 1965. Its strategy was "escalation" until the Tet Offensive in 1968. The Vietnamese liberation forces carried out simultaneous, surprise uprisings in hundreds of towns and villages throughout south Vietnam, with commando strikes against the U.S. Embassy and major U.S. air force bases. The Tet Offensive turned the tide against U.S. forces in Vietnam.
Giap told PBS, "It was the American policy to try and escalate the war. Our goal in the 1968 offensive was to force them to de-escalate, to break the American will to remain in the war. ... We did this by confronting them with repeated military, as well as political and diplomatic victories."
The U.S. lost 58,226 soldiers in its war against Vietnam and suffered a few thousand missing in action. This was more than enough to shred popular support for continuing the war.
Vietnam released figures on April 3, 1995, that a total of 1 million Vietnamese combatants and 4 million civilians were killed in the war. The accuracy of these figures has generally not been challenged.
Even with all these deaths, the U.S. could not break the will of the Vietnamese to wage a peoples war for their national sovereignty and liberation from neocolonialism.
U.S. aggression against Vietnam, however, still continues in the form of lingering, terrible effects from Agent Orange, the herbicide spread over huge areas of south Vietnam by the U.S. Air Force. Even after three generations, 150,000 Vietnamese children suffer from physical and mental abnormalities caused by Agent Orange.
Long live Vietnam and its struggles! Long live Senior Gen. Vo Nguyen Giap!

Articles copyright 1995-2008 Workers World. Verbatim copying and distribution of this entire article is permitted in any medium without royalty provided this notice is preserved.

Peoples Army Mar 17 p1, New Hanoi Mar 17 p1:

General Giap urges war veterans to serve national development

September 2004, the Vietnam War Veterans Associatio had 1.92 million members.

War veterans should continue their contributions to the prosperity of Vietnam, just as they did in the past struggles for national independence and freedom, General Vo Nguyen Giap said on March 16.

At a meeting held by the Central Committee of the Vietnam War Veterans Association and its Hanoi affiliate, the 94-year-old general told more than 400 war veterans, officers and soldiers, who took part in the campaign leading to the national reunification in 1975, that they should promote the traditions of Uncle Ho soldiers, even in peacetime.

Masterminding a series of victories against the French and US troops in the 1950s, 1960s and the first half of 1970, the Vietnamese former military leader is cited in Vietnam as a "national treasure," and regarded internationally as a unique expert on guerrilla warfare.

Gen Giap is also considered "the elder brother" of the Vietnamese armed forces and is honorary President of the Vietnam War Veterans Association.

The Vietnam War Veterans Association (VWVA) was established on December 12, 1989 under a decision of the Politburo of the sixth Communist Partys Central Committee. sub-associations across the country. Seventy thousand members are now involved in farming and providing jobs for tens of thousand of people. Some 1,160 others now own private enterprises or liability companies with a total revenue of VND879 billion ($ 55 million). However, 5% of them still live in poverty.